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Bristol at War 1940 – Wine Avenue/Substantial Avenue

James Castello/ June 21, 2017/ Running/ 0 comments

Bristol at War 1940 - Wine Street/High Street

The Dutch Property this seventeenth century making after stood on the corner of Wine Avenue it was minimized to a charred skeleton and for safety’s sake it experienced to be pulled down.

The Dutch Property was Bristol’s finest-recognized landmark before the Blitz. By 1732 it was the property of John Vaughan, a goldsmith, in 1810 it turned the Castle Financial institution, in 1826 the Stuckey’s Financial institution and by 1855 it was occupied by Mr Tilly the Hatter (he 1st known as it Dutch Property even though it has no relationship with Holland).

In 1908 it was saved from demolition by the Lord Mayor’s casting vote. During the 1930s it housed the Irish Linen and Hosiery Affiliation but was pulled down immediately after being significantly bombed in 1940.

Extracts from the Western Each day Press Bristol From seventh June 1940 to 16th August 1944

June twenty five 1940

Soon immediately after midnight the 1st H.E. bomb fell among the a few aged residences and outlets in the vicinity of Champion & Davies’ manufacturing unit in Decrease Maudlin Avenue. The manufacturing unit by itself, which was being utilized as a Purple Cross depot, was strike by yet another bomb. A further assault was manufactured on Knowle about one.30 a.m. and bombs also fell in areas of St. George and Bedminster.

Districts impacted had been primarily St. Philip’s, St. Paul’s and Brislington. Goal of this raid was possibly Temple Meads Station as nine H.E’s fell on railway house – two failed to explode. Other unexploded bombs had been situated at Temple Gate and Victoria Avenue. Bristol’s 1st air raid lasted from twelve.10 a.m. till two.35. Five people had been killed, fourteen significantly hurt and 19 marginally hurt.

September seven 1940

Though there was no ‘red’ warning, 5 bombs had been dropped through the day in the vicinity of Bristol Cathedral, one producing a direct strike on the Cathedral Faculty, injuring the Headmaster (the Rev. H. A. Watts).

September twenty five 1940

The Luftwaffe’s aim was the Bristol Aeroplane Works: flying in virtually ideal development they arrived about the metropolis at 11.forty, manufactured straight for the will work, and located them completely at their mercy. In 45 terror-stuffed seconds they let loose 168 bombs, creating a large dying-roll and significantly havoc. Blenheims, Beauforts and Beaufighters had been being built at the B.A.C. at the time, and even though the German News Company place out the declare, ‘This manufacturing unit will not develop quite a few additional aircraft’, in actual simple fact only eight planes had been so significantly damaged as to be irreparable.

September 27 1940

On this day, two days immediately after the devastating assaults on the Aeroplane Works, the Germans came about with the identical intentions. At about 11.30 a power of about nine bombers, accompanied by fighters, came about the metropolis, but a squadron of Hurricanes was waiting around for them. A.A. guns had been in action as well, and the development was dispersed before it could reach its focus on. Regardless of the risk, crowds of people came out in the streets to observe the ‘dog fights’ using area in the sky.

November 24 1940

At six.21 the sirens blared their warning. They did not seem ‘Raiders Passed’ till eight minutes earlier midnight – practically 6 several hours of slaughter, desolation and destroy. As quickly as the raiders came about, the skies had been illuminated by the incandescent glare of scores of flares. In a make any difference of seconds, incendiaries and large explosives hurtled down to earth. It was afterwards reckoned that 60 enemy planes had been liable for lying waste to so significantly of the metropolis. Their methods appeared to be to fly about the metropolis two or 3 at a time at standard intervals to unleash their cargo of dying and destruction.

The vast majority of the bombs had been incendiary, which includes a new form of explosive incendiary, but they had been not without their quota of large explosives. Some had been of an really massive calibre, as could be judged by the big craters in Thomas Avenue and Wells Highway. Totterdown.

The heart of the metropolis from Broad Quay to Aged Sector bore the brunt of the raid, particularly St James’s Barton and St. Philip’s and in Clifton, Bedminster, Knowle, and St. George. The depth of the raid can be gauged by the subsequent summary of the better-recognized structures and streets which had been destroyed.

They provided the Museum, and aspect of the Artwork Gallery a portion of the College, which includes the Great Hall, the Princes Theatre St Anselm’s Church Clifton Parish Church the Preparatory Faculty of Bristol Grammar Faculty and Freemason’s Hall. Shopping districts offered scenes of in-describable desolation – Lennards’ structures and quite a few premises in Queen’s Highway turned nothing additional than heaps of rubble, while on both aspect of Park Avenue scarcely a store was remaining intact.

Outlets in College Inexperienced and numerous premises in Canons’ Marsh, also, had been demolished, But it was the centre of the metropolis which suffered the worst: from Marsh Avenue and Nicholas Avenue, Substantial Avenue, Bridge Avenue, Mary-le-Port Avenue, Wine Avenue, Castle Avenue, Union Avenue, and Broadmead (some of these streets had been entirely destroyed), Barr Avenue, the Barton, and Stokes Croft, These types of well-recognized structures as the Aged Dutch Property, the Fish Sector, SI, Nicholas Church, St. Peter’s Medical center (unique and gorgeous Elizabethan making), St. Peter’s Church, Mary-le-Port Church, the Upper Arcade, aspect of the Bristol Club, and quite a few of the aged Almshouses, had been among the all those demolished.

Most of the well-known outlets in Wine Avenue and Castle Avenue had been completely wiped out, Heavy hurt was sustained in Redcliff Avenue, Victoria Avenue and St. Thomas Avenue, and E. S. & A, Robinson, Mardon Son & Hall, and Bennett Bros, had been closely battered.

Historic Temple Church was destroyed, but its well known leaning tower withstood the bombs as a testimony to the masonry of 800 several years ago. Destruction to residences in Knowle was widespread Holy Nativity Church was burnt out, and interference to marketplace was done by hurt to the British Oxygen Co. and John Lysaght Ltd. In all, 337 unexploded bombs or suspected bombs had been documented, and as a result of assessment, a hundred seventy five unexploded bombs had been documented to the Bomb Disposal Device.

In a raid of this kind of depth, it is hard to type an estimate of all bombs dropped on the metropolis. The German communique maintained that three hundred tons of large explosive and 10,000 incendiaries had been released by their bombers, but a additional conservative estimate would be some thing below one,000 large explosive and 5,000 incendiary bombs.

The formal casualty checklist was 200 killed, 163 significantly hurt, and 526 marginally damage, Seventy-7 brigades had been sent into the metropolis from exterior, and 20,000 feet of hose was obtained from Cardiff, Newport, Bournemouth and Plymouth. In 30 minutes of the warning, 897 aspect-time staff of the A.F.S. documented for duty. Eight auxiliary firemen lost their lives in the raid.

The Army, Royal Engineers and Infantry quickly came forward to give their help, and they had been busily engaged in demolition, clearance, website traffic handle and housing repairs. On one day there had been 830 troops so utilized. As soon as once again the hostels plan was place into operation, and on this night time two,087 people had been admitted to them.

In twelve days, 70,294 foods had been served at the 39 hostels. The blanket inventory at St. Peter’s Medical center was destroyed, but on the night time of the subsequent day, one,500 blankets experienced been obtained and 3,seven-hundred had been offered by the night time of the 26th.

Destruction to the utility expert services handicapped feeding preparations and communal foods had been inaugurated. It is believed that, apart from business structures, no much less than 10,000 residences had been damaged in some degree.

By the center of the 7 days two,000 males had been engaged on repairs. Among the the well-recognized structures which had been damaged, in addition to all those presently talked about, had been: St. Mary Redcliffe (marginally), St. Nicholas and Clifton Parish Church (destroyed). Aged structures in Mary-Ie-Port Avenue, Dr. White’s Almshouses in Temple Avenue and Almshouses in North Avenue, Long Row, and King Avenue, and Georgian residences in Charlotte Avenue and Berkeley Square.

December two 1940

Bristol’s second major air raid started out at sixteen minutes earlier 6 and lasted till 11 o’clock. The Bishop’s Palace was completely burned out, and the Children’s Medical center, St. Michael’s Hill was strike, but thankfully the employees had been equipped to evacuate the little ones to the Homoeopathic Medical center, without injuries. Welsh Back again was strike and aspect of the Quayside demolished. Budgett’s massive warehouse in Nelson Avenue, which experienced been damaged in a earlier raid, was completely destroyed.

The northern 50 % of Portland Square was burned out, while in Rosemary Avenue the Dockland Settlement was destroyed. A massive calibre bomb destroyed a wardens’ write-up in Dean Avenue, St. Paul’s, burying 13 people below the particles, and the police headquarters in Bridewell was strike. At Hill’s shipyard at Cumberland Highway, the s.s. Bristol Metropolis was strike, One more bomb fell on W. D. & H. . Wills’ No.one manufacturing unit, detrimental 10 machines, but manufacturing continued.

Formal casualty figures had been 156 killed, 149 significantly hurt, and 121 marginally hurt, Rescue parties manufactured 66 calls, from which they rescued a hundred thirty five individuals alive and recovered 117 bodies, In the 1st hour, 55 fires had been documented – in all there had been 167. A full of one,518 complete-time and aspect-time firemen fought the flames, two of them shedding their lives.

December six 1940

Bristol’s third major air raid inside a fortnight started just immediately after 50 %-earlier 6 and lasted till 11.28. The Council Property, Assize Courtroom, G.P.O., Merchants’ Hall, Seamen’s Institute, and Corn Exchange had been among the the well-recognized structures in the metropolis which sustained severe hurt. H2o-carts, now getting additional familiar with just about every raid, appeared in the streets.

Among the factories demolished or poorly damaged had been: Distillers (of Cheese Lane), Bennett Bros (at Counterslip), and Metal Organizations (at Welsh Back again and Queen Charlotte Avenue), while fire triggered appreciable hurt to the British Oxygen Company’s premises, Parnall’s aircraft will work at Barton Hill, and John Lysaght & Co. One of the worst incidents of the raid was at Temple Meads, where a large-explosive bomb struck the station system alongside the seven.10 educate from Bristol to Salisbury. The educate was derailed, two coaches had been damaged and casualties had been weighty.

Casualty figures for this raid had been: a hundred killed, eighty significantly and 108 marginally hurt. December sixteen 1940 The King came down to Bristol and noticed for himself the war-scarred metropolis and the undaunted spirit of its citizens. As the then Lord Mayor (Aid. T. H. J. Underdown) reported the King showed abounding sympathy with the people of the metropolis. His mindset was what the Lord Mayor termed, one of ‘man to man’. Queen Mary also manufactured a tour of welfare centres in the afternoon.

January 3 – 4 1941

In this virtually dusk-to-dawn assault, the Civil Defence expert services experienced yet another foe to fight—frost. The night time was one of winter’s bitterest. The ton of the fire fighters was potentially worst. As drinking water streamed from their jets big icicles shaped on the structures, and great sheets of ice on the roadways included to the plight of all those bravely making an attempt to quench the fires.

Up to now this was the city’s longest raid – lasting accurately twelve several hours. Fairly early on, it was apparent that Temple Meads and the Metropolis Docks experienced been earmarked by the raiders for particular awareness. The earlier wave of bombers showered incendiaries primarily alongside a line working westwards from Temple Meads.

Football News, Match Reports And Fixtures

James Castello/ June 16, 2017/ Snowboard Tips/ 0 comments

The Daily Telegraph made the allegations on Wednesday as portion of its undercover investigation into corruption in football. However, the key sources of contemporary football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England. He played most of his experienced football profession in his native Germany except for the tiny period of time he was in the United States. For these of us who play or stick to a sport we are generally extremely passionate about it and in the case of us British and football this is definitely the case.

7 Methods To Build A Witty Fantasy Football Team Name

James Castello/ June 4, 2017/ Football/ 0 comments

It is not required that you ought to commit indefinite time on your laptop and tax your brain no end to choose the greatest fantasy football group. If Ertz can strengthen his blocking, he will be on the field for additional snaps and will have the likelihood to turn out to be 1 of the very best TEs in the NFL. Coaching football is one thing that a lot of people today want to do. A lot of folks manage to do this on an amateur scale. Scoring goals or points by moving the ball to an opposing team’s end of the field and either into a aim region, or more than a line. It has been on the programme of every single edition of the Games ever because, with the exception of Los Angeles 1932.

Evolve Blended Martial Arts

James Castello/ May 24, 2017/ General Article/ 0 comments

Evolve Mixed Martial Arts

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Heißluftballon über Kellberg

James Castello/ May 18, 2017/ Climbing, Sport/ 0 comments

Heißluftballon über Kellberg

Der Heißluftballon ist ein Luftfahrzeug das den statischen Auftrieb warmer Luft in seinem Inneren nutzt. In einer Hülle wird eine große Luftmenge erwärmt. Dadurch dehnt sich die Luft aus, was ihr spezifisches Gewicht reduziert. Der Ballon hebt ab, wenn der Auftrieb der erwärmten Luftmenge der Gewichtskraft von Hülle, Korb und Nutzlast entspricht. Der Heißluftballon besitzt keine Tragestruktur – der Korb hängt (über Seile) an der Hülle oder diese wird von Seilen umspannt, an denen der Korb hängt.

Bemannte Ballone werden üblicherweise mit Gasbrenner, häufig sogenannten Kuhbrennern betrieben.

Im Gegensatz zum Heißluftballon wird beim Gasballon nicht Luft verwendet, sondern ein anderes Gas, das bereits bei Umgebungstemperatur leichter als Luft ist. Es wird üblicherweise nicht erhitzt.
Der Solarballon erhitzt die Innenluft durch Sonneneinstrahlung.
Ein Heißluft-Luftschiff, hat wie alle Luftschiffe einen Antrieb, im Gegensatz zum Ballon
Nach den viel älteren Fesseldrachen, die teilweise auch bemannt waren, ist der Heißluftballon das älteste Luftfahrzeug. Allerdings gab es schon in China kleine, unbemannte Heißluftballons, die sogenannten Kong-Ming-Laternen.

Die Beobachtung, dass Rauch und heiße Luft nach oben steigt, führte immer wieder zu Versuchen mit erwärmter Luft. Der Jesuitenpater Bartolomeu de Gusmão führte zeitgenössischen Berichten zufolge einige Ballon-Modelle am portugiesischen Hof vor[1][2] und erbat von König Johann V. ein Patent. Den Schritt von eher spielerischen Modellen zum praktisch nutzbaren Luftfahrtzeug leisteten die Brüder Joseph Michel und Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, die deshalb als Erfinder des Heißluftballons gelten.

Deren erste Ballonfahrt fand am 4. oder 5. Juni 1783 statt, Menschen waren nicht an Bord. Die zweite Fahrt fand am 19. September in Versailles statt. Weil man der Sache aber noch nicht richtig traute, und auch noch nichts über das „Luftmeer“ wusste, zog man es vor, statt Menschen drei Tiere, nämlich einen Hahn, eine Ente und einen Hammel zu befördern. Heißluftballons wurden nach ihren Erfindern auch Montgolfièren genannt.

Die ersten Ballonfahrer in der Menschheitsgeschichte waren Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier und der Gardeoffizier François d’Arlandes, die am 21. November 1783 aus dem Garten des Schlosses La Muette bei Paris mit einem Heißluftballon aufstiegen. Die erste bekannte Ballonfahrt außerhalb Frankreichs wurde von Don Paolo Andreani und den Brüdern Agostino und Carlo Gerli am 25. Februar 1784 in der Nähe von Mailand unternommen.

Eine Fahrt bis in eine Höhe von 69.852 Fuß (über 21 Kilometer) gelang am 26. November 2005 dem indischen Millionär Vijaypat Singhania. Sein Start erfolgte in Mumbai, Landeort war die Stadt Sinnar im Bundesstaat Maharashtra.
Unter Normalbedingungen besitzt ein Kubikmeter Luft eine Masse von etwa 1,3 kg. Bei konstantem Druck sinkt die Dichte von Gasen mit steigender Temperatur nach dem Gesetz von Gay-Lussac. Durch den Dichteunterschied der kälteren äußeren Luft und der wärmeren Luft im Ballon entsteht so eine Auftriebskraft. Diese wirkt der Schwerkraft (dem Gewicht) des Heißluftballons entgegen. Das Gewicht des Heißluftballons setzt sich zusammen aus dem Gewicht der Ballonhülle plus dem Gewicht der ihm angehängten Nutzlast (Korb mit Brenner, Gasbehältern und Insassen).

Für eine erste grobe Abschätzung der Tragkraft eines Ballons kann dieser als Kugel betrachtet werden. Da das Volumen einer Kugel (und damit der Auftrieb des Ballons) mit der dritten, die Oberfläche (und damit das Gewicht der Hülle) aber nur mit der zweiten Potenz des Durchmessers zunimmt, kann ein größerer Ballon eine größere Nutzlast tragen. Verfeinerte Betrachtungen beziehen die Umstände mit ein, dass mit steigendem Ballondurchmesser schwerere Brenner und festere Hüllen benötigt werden.

Gängige Größen sind 3000–5000 Kubikmeter. Die Temperatur im Innern eines Heißluftballons beträgt während einer Ballonfahrt ca. 90 °C. Da der Auftrieb mit zunehmendem Dichteunterschied der inneren Luft zur Umgebungsluft wächst, hat ein Heißluftballon in tieferen Luftschichten mit höherem Luftdruck und bei kälteren Außentemperaturen eine größere maximale Tragkraft. Die Hülle gibt Wärme an die deshalb daran langsam hochstreichende Außenluft ab zusätzlich strahlt sie Wärme rundum ab, während Sonnenstrahlung von einer Seite erwärmen kann.
Start und Landung eines Heißluftballons werden leicht durch Wind beeinträchtigt. Durch die große Angriffsfläche der Ballonhülle treten potentiell große Kräfte auf. Wenn der Auftrieb schon groß ist, aber noch nicht ausreicht, um den Ballon vollständig abzuheben, wird die Gondel buchstäblich über den Boden geschleift. Dies kann bei Hindernissen die Insassen der Gondel gefährden. Ballonfahrten werden daher grundsätzlich nur bei Windstille oder schwachem Wind am Boden gestartet.

Abgesehen von der Windgeschwindigkeit bei Start und Landung ist das Ballonfahren auch davon abhängig, dass sich in der Luft keine starke Thermik aufgebaut hat. Da die Ballonhülle nach unten offen ist, könnten thermische Böen diese zusammendrücken und die Heißluft nach unten heraus pressen. Der Ballon verliert damit einen Teil seines Auftriebs. Dadurch beginnt er schnell zu sinken. Dies erzeugt zusätzlichen Fahrtwind von unten, der die Hülle weiter komprimiert und mehr Heißluft heraus presst. Dies kann zu einem sich selbst beschleunigenden Absturz führen, der auch durch maximale Wärmezufuhr durch den Brenner nicht aufzuhalten ist. Seitliche Böen, wie sie beim Durchgang einer meteorologischen Front auftreten, können ebenfalls den Ballon verformen und Heißluft herausdrücken.

Auch weniger starke Thermik geht grundsätzlich mit steigender und sinkenden Luftmassen einher. Dies führt zu der Notwendigkeit, mehr zu heizen, um die gewünschte Höhe zu halten. Mit gleicher Gasmenge kann ein Heißluftballon sich daher ohne Thermik länger in der Luft halten.

Haufenwolken, sind ein sicheres Anzeichen für Thermik oder den Durchgang einer Kaltfront. Massive Nimbostratus-Wolken treten beim Durchgang einer Warmfront auf. Bei tiefliegenden Schichtwolken ist zwar in der Regel die Luft ruhig, aber es fehlt die Sicht. Hoch liegende Cirrus-Wolken sind dagegen kein Anzeichen für unruhige Luft. Deshalb finden Ballonfahrten bevorzugt bei ruhiger Wetterlage und weitgehend wolkenlosem Himmel statt.

Im Sommer heizt die Sonne den Boden im Laufe des Tages auf. Die aufsteigende warme Bodenluft erzeugt Thermik, die sich bis zum frühen Nachmittag verstärkt und dann mit sinkendem Sonnenstand wieder nachlässt. Die Morgen- und Abendstunden sind daher häufig besonders geeignet für einen sicheren Ballonflug.

Es ist nicht möglich, einen Ballon direkt zu steuern. Um auf die Fahrtrichtung und -geschwindigkeit Einfluss zu nehmen, werden die sich in unterschiedlichen Höhen voneinander unterscheidenden Windrichtungen und -geschwindigkeiten ausgenutzt. Durch gezieltes Steigen oder Sinken können Winde so ausgenutzt werden, um sich einem gewünschten Ziel zu nähern.

Durch Betätigung des Brenners wird die Luft in der Hülle erwärmt, wodurch der Ballon steigt. Durch langsames Abkühlen der Luft beginnt der Ballon wieder zu sinken. Ein rasches Sinken des Ballons kann durch das Öffnen des sogenannten „Parachutes“ erfolgen. Der Parachute ist aus demselben Material wie die Hülle und befindet sich an der Spitze des Ballons. Während des Aufrüstens wird der Parachute durch Klettverschlüsse mit der umgebenden Hülle verbunden und geschlossen. Während der Fahrt bleibt der Parachute durch den Druck der aufsteigenden warmen Luft geschlossen. Durch Ziehen an einem Seil kann der Pilot den Parachute öffnen. Dadurch kann warme Luft schnell aus der Hülle entweichen. Durch Loslassen der Leine wird der Parachute wieder durch die warme Luft geschlossen.

Mittels tangentialem Luftaustritt durch Steuerdüsen nahe dem Ballonäquator, welche auch „Ohren“ genannt werden, kann ein Ballon um seine Hochachse gedreht werden, etwa um den Korb zur Landung günstig auszurichten.

Ballonfahren ist nicht nur eine Freizeitaktivität, sondern es gibt auch Wettbewerbe bis hin zur Weltmeisterschaft. Bei den Wettbewerben werden mehrere Ballonfahrten durchgeführt, bei denen je Fahrt meist mehrere Aufgaben bestmöglich gelöst werden müssen. Ein bekannter Ballonwettbewerb ist die Montgolfiade.

Bei den meisten Aufgabentypen kommt es darauf an, mit einem kleinen Markierungsbeutel (Beanbag, Marker) ein bestimmtes Ziel zu treffen. Das Ziel ist entweder bereits vor der Fahrt bekannt („Vorgegebenes Ziel“) oder wird vom Piloten vor der Fahrt („Selbstgewähltes Ziel“) oder währenddessen bestimmt und auf den Marker einer vorherigen Aufgabe geschrieben („Fly on“).

Weitere Aufgabentypen sind beispielsweise die Weitfahrt innerhalb eines begrenzten Wertungsgebietes („Maximum Distance“) oder aber auch die „Minimum Distance“ mit „Zeitvorgabe“, bei der der Pilot gewinnt, der nach einer vorgegebenen Mindestfahrtzeit die kürzeste Strecke zurückgelegt hat. Bei der „Fuchsjagd“ startet ein Ballon, der in der Regel mit einer Flagge gekennzeichnet wird, mit einem gewissen Zeitvorsprung und legt am Landeort ein Zielkreuz für die nachfolgenden Ballons aus, an dem die nachfolgenden Ballonfahrer möglichst nah zu landen haben.

Die Wettbewerbsleitung wird dabei von Observern unterstützt. Jedem Piloten und seinem Team wird pro Fahrt ein Observer zugeteilt. Diese fungieren als Schiedsrichter. Sie messen die Marker ein und beobachten, ob während der Fahrt alles gemäß den Regeln abgelaufen ist.
1979 gelang zwei thüringischen Familien mit einem selbst gebauten Heißluftballon die „Ballonflucht“ aus der DDR in die Bundesrepublik.

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. It is part of a class of aircraft known as balloon aircraft. On November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, the first untethered[1] manned flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d’Arlandes in a hot air balloon created on December 14, 1782 by the Montgolfier brothers.[2] Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than just being pushed along by the wind are known as airships or, more specifically, thermal airships.

A hot air balloon consists of a bag called the envelope that is capable of containing heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule), which carries passengers and (usually) a source of heat, in most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the air surrounding. For modern sport balloons the envelope is generally made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon (closest to the burner flame) is made from fire resistant material such as Nomex. Beginning during the mid-1970s, balloon envelopes have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the traditional shape remains popular for most non-commercial, and many commercial, applications.

Early unmanned hot air balloons were used in China. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, during the Three Kingdoms era (220–280 AD) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. These lanterns are known as Kongming lanterns (孔明灯).[3][4][5] There is also some speculation, from a demonstration directed by British modern hot air balloonist Julian Nott during the late 1970s[6] and again in 2003,[7] that hot air balloons could have been used as an aid for designing the famous Nazca ground figures and lines,[6] which were created by the Nazca culture of Peru between 400 and 650 AD.[8] The first documented balloon flight in Europe was demonstrated by Bartolomeu de Gusmão. On August 8, 1709, in Lisbon, he managed to lift a balloon full of hot air about 4.5 meters in front of King John V and the Portuguese court.

The brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier developed a hot air balloon in Annonay, Ardeche, France, and demonstrated it publicly on September 19, 1783 with an unmanned flight lasting 10 minutes. After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first balloon flight with humans aboard—a tethered flight—performed on or around October 15, 1783 by Etienne Montgolfier who made at least one tethered flight from the yard of the Reveillon workshop in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. Later that same day, Pilatre de Rozier became the second human to ascend into the air, to an altitude of 24 m (79 ft) which was the length of the tether.[11] The first free flight with human passengers occurred a few weeks later, on November 21, 1783.[12] King Louis XVI had originally decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with Marquis François d’Arlandes, petitioned successfully for the honor.[13][14][15] The first military use of a hot air balloon happened during the battle of Fleurus in Europe (1794), with the French using the balloon l’Entreprenant as an observation post.
Modern hot air balloons, with an onboard heat source, were developed by Ed Yost, beginning during the 1950s; his work resulted in his first successful flight, on October 22, 1960.[17] The first modern hot air balloon to be made in the United Kingdom (UK) was the Bristol Belle during 1967. Presently, hot air balloons are