Heißluftballon über Kellberg

James Castello/ May 18, 2017/ Climbing, Sport/ 0 comments

Heißluftballon über Kellberg

Der Heißluftballon ist ein Luftfahrzeug das den statischen Auftrieb warmer Luft in seinem Inneren nutzt. In einer Hülle wird eine große Luftmenge erwärmt. Dadurch dehnt sich die Luft aus, was ihr spezifisches Gewicht reduziert. Der Ballon hebt ab, wenn der Auftrieb der erwärmten Luftmenge der Gewichtskraft von Hülle, Korb und Nutzlast entspricht. Der Heißluftballon besitzt keine Tragestruktur – der Korb hängt (über Seile) an der Hülle oder diese wird von Seilen umspannt, an denen der Korb hängt.

Bemannte Ballone werden üblicherweise mit Gasbrenner, häufig sogenannten Kuhbrennern betrieben.

Im Gegensatz zum Heißluftballon wird beim Gasballon nicht Luft verwendet, sondern ein anderes Gas, das bereits bei Umgebungstemperatur leichter als Luft ist. Es wird üblicherweise nicht erhitzt.
Der Solarballon erhitzt die Innenluft durch Sonneneinstrahlung.
Ein Heißluft-Luftschiff, hat wie alle Luftschiffe einen Antrieb, im Gegensatz zum Ballon
Nach den viel älteren Fesseldrachen, die teilweise auch bemannt waren, ist der Heißluftballon das älteste Luftfahrzeug. Allerdings gab es schon in China kleine, unbemannte Heißluftballons, die sogenannten Kong-Ming-Laternen.

Die Beobachtung, dass Rauch und heiße Luft nach oben steigt, führte immer wieder zu Versuchen mit erwärmter Luft. Der Jesuitenpater Bartolomeu de Gusmão führte zeitgenössischen Berichten zufolge einige Ballon-Modelle am portugiesischen Hof vor[1][2] und erbat von König Johann V. ein Patent. Den Schritt von eher spielerischen Modellen zum praktisch nutzbaren Luftfahrtzeug leisteten die Brüder Joseph Michel und Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, die deshalb als Erfinder des Heißluftballons gelten.

Deren erste Ballonfahrt fand am 4. oder 5. Juni 1783 statt, Menschen waren nicht an Bord. Die zweite Fahrt fand am 19. September in Versailles statt. Weil man der Sache aber noch nicht richtig traute, und auch noch nichts über das „Luftmeer“ wusste, zog man es vor, statt Menschen drei Tiere, nämlich einen Hahn, eine Ente und einen Hammel zu befördern. Heißluftballons wurden nach ihren Erfindern auch Montgolfièren genannt.

Die ersten Ballonfahrer in der Menschheitsgeschichte waren Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier und der Gardeoffizier François d’Arlandes, die am 21. November 1783 aus dem Garten des Schlosses La Muette bei Paris mit einem Heißluftballon aufstiegen. Die erste bekannte Ballonfahrt außerhalb Frankreichs wurde von Don Paolo Andreani und den Brüdern Agostino und Carlo Gerli am 25. Februar 1784 in der Nähe von Mailand unternommen.

Eine Fahrt bis in eine Höhe von 69.852 Fuß (über 21 Kilometer) gelang am 26. November 2005 dem indischen Millionär Vijaypat Singhania. Sein Start erfolgte in Mumbai, Landeort war die Stadt Sinnar im Bundesstaat Maharashtra.
Unter Normalbedingungen besitzt ein Kubikmeter Luft eine Masse von etwa 1,3 kg. Bei konstantem Druck sinkt die Dichte von Gasen mit steigender Temperatur nach dem Gesetz von Gay-Lussac. Durch den Dichteunterschied der kälteren äußeren Luft und der wärmeren Luft im Ballon entsteht so eine Auftriebskraft. Diese wirkt der Schwerkraft (dem Gewicht) des Heißluftballons entgegen. Das Gewicht des Heißluftballons setzt sich zusammen aus dem Gewicht der Ballonhülle plus dem Gewicht der ihm angehängten Nutzlast (Korb mit Brenner, Gasbehältern und Insassen).

Für eine erste grobe Abschätzung der Tragkraft eines Ballons kann dieser als Kugel betrachtet werden. Da das Volumen einer Kugel (und damit der Auftrieb des Ballons) mit der dritten, die Oberfläche (und damit das Gewicht der Hülle) aber nur mit der zweiten Potenz des Durchmessers zunimmt, kann ein größerer Ballon eine größere Nutzlast tragen. Verfeinerte Betrachtungen beziehen die Umstände mit ein, dass mit steigendem Ballondurchmesser schwerere Brenner und festere Hüllen benötigt werden.

Gängige Größen sind 3000–5000 Kubikmeter. Die Temperatur im Innern eines Heißluftballons beträgt während einer Ballonfahrt ca. 90 °C. Da der Auftrieb mit zunehmendem Dichteunterschied der inneren Luft zur Umgebungsluft wächst, hat ein Heißluftballon in tieferen Luftschichten mit höherem Luftdruck und bei kälteren Außentemperaturen eine größere maximale Tragkraft. Die Hülle gibt Wärme an die deshalb daran langsam hochstreichende Außenluft ab zusätzlich strahlt sie Wärme rundum ab, während Sonnenstrahlung von einer Seite erwärmen kann.
Start und Landung eines Heißluftballons werden leicht durch Wind beeinträchtigt. Durch die große Angriffsfläche der Ballonhülle treten potentiell große Kräfte auf. Wenn der Auftrieb schon groß ist, aber noch nicht ausreicht, um den Ballon vollständig abzuheben, wird die Gondel buchstäblich über den Boden geschleift. Dies kann bei Hindernissen die Insassen der Gondel gefährden. Ballonfahrten werden daher grundsätzlich nur bei Windstille oder schwachem Wind am Boden gestartet.

Abgesehen von der Windgeschwindigkeit bei Start und Landung ist das Ballonfahren auch davon abhängig, dass sich in der Luft keine starke Thermik aufgebaut hat. Da die Ballonhülle nach unten offen ist, könnten thermische Böen diese zusammendrücken und die Heißluft nach unten heraus pressen. Der Ballon verliert damit einen Teil seines Auftriebs. Dadurch beginnt er schnell zu sinken. Dies erzeugt zusätzlichen Fahrtwind von unten, der die Hülle weiter komprimiert und mehr Heißluft heraus presst. Dies kann zu einem sich selbst beschleunigenden Absturz führen, der auch durch maximale Wärmezufuhr durch den Brenner nicht aufzuhalten ist. Seitliche Böen, wie sie beim Durchgang einer meteorologischen Front auftreten, können ebenfalls den Ballon verformen und Heißluft herausdrücken.

Auch weniger starke Thermik geht grundsätzlich mit steigender und sinkenden Luftmassen einher. Dies führt zu der Notwendigkeit, mehr zu heizen, um die gewünschte Höhe zu halten. Mit gleicher Gasmenge kann ein Heißluftballon sich daher ohne Thermik länger in der Luft halten.

Haufenwolken, sind ein sicheres Anzeichen für Thermik oder den Durchgang einer Kaltfront. Massive Nimbostratus-Wolken treten beim Durchgang einer Warmfront auf. Bei tiefliegenden Schichtwolken ist zwar in der Regel die Luft ruhig, aber es fehlt die Sicht. Hoch liegende Cirrus-Wolken sind dagegen kein Anzeichen für unruhige Luft. Deshalb finden Ballonfahrten bevorzugt bei ruhiger Wetterlage und weitgehend wolkenlosem Himmel statt.

Im Sommer heizt die Sonne den Boden im Laufe des Tages auf. Die aufsteigende warme Bodenluft erzeugt Thermik, die sich bis zum frühen Nachmittag verstärkt und dann mit sinkendem Sonnenstand wieder nachlässt. Die Morgen- und Abendstunden sind daher häufig besonders geeignet für einen sicheren Ballonflug.

Es ist nicht möglich, einen Ballon direkt zu steuern. Um auf die Fahrtrichtung und -geschwindigkeit Einfluss zu nehmen, werden die sich in unterschiedlichen Höhen voneinander unterscheidenden Windrichtungen und -geschwindigkeiten ausgenutzt. Durch gezieltes Steigen oder Sinken können Winde so ausgenutzt werden, um sich einem gewünschten Ziel zu nähern.

Durch Betätigung des Brenners wird die Luft in der Hülle erwärmt, wodurch der Ballon steigt. Durch langsames Abkühlen der Luft beginnt der Ballon wieder zu sinken. Ein rasches Sinken des Ballons kann durch das Öffnen des sogenannten „Parachutes“ erfolgen. Der Parachute ist aus demselben Material wie die Hülle und befindet sich an der Spitze des Ballons. Während des Aufrüstens wird der Parachute durch Klettverschlüsse mit der umgebenden Hülle verbunden und geschlossen. Während der Fahrt bleibt der Parachute durch den Druck der aufsteigenden warmen Luft geschlossen. Durch Ziehen an einem Seil kann der Pilot den Parachute öffnen. Dadurch kann warme Luft schnell aus der Hülle entweichen. Durch Loslassen der Leine wird der Parachute wieder durch die warme Luft geschlossen.

Mittels tangentialem Luftaustritt durch Steuerdüsen nahe dem Ballonäquator, welche auch „Ohren“ genannt werden, kann ein Ballon um seine Hochachse gedreht werden, etwa um den Korb zur Landung günstig auszurichten.

Ballonfahren ist nicht nur eine Freizeitaktivität, sondern es gibt auch Wettbewerbe bis hin zur Weltmeisterschaft. Bei den Wettbewerben werden mehrere Ballonfahrten durchgeführt, bei denen je Fahrt meist mehrere Aufgaben bestmöglich gelöst werden müssen. Ein bekannter Ballonwettbewerb ist die Montgolfiade.

Bei den meisten Aufgabentypen kommt es darauf an, mit einem kleinen Markierungsbeutel (Beanbag, Marker) ein bestimmtes Ziel zu treffen. Das Ziel ist entweder bereits vor der Fahrt bekannt („Vorgegebenes Ziel“) oder wird vom Piloten vor der Fahrt („Selbstgewähltes Ziel“) oder währenddessen bestimmt und auf den Marker einer vorherigen Aufgabe geschrieben („Fly on“).

Weitere Aufgabentypen sind beispielsweise die Weitfahrt innerhalb eines begrenzten Wertungsgebietes („Maximum Distance“) oder aber auch die „Minimum Distance“ mit „Zeitvorgabe“, bei der der Pilot gewinnt, der nach einer vorgegebenen Mindestfahrtzeit die kürzeste Strecke zurückgelegt hat. Bei der „Fuchsjagd“ startet ein Ballon, der in der Regel mit einer Flagge gekennzeichnet wird, mit einem gewissen Zeitvorsprung und legt am Landeort ein Zielkreuz für die nachfolgenden Ballons aus, an dem die nachfolgenden Ballonfahrer möglichst nah zu landen haben.

Die Wettbewerbsleitung wird dabei von Observern unterstützt. Jedem Piloten und seinem Team wird pro Fahrt ein Observer zugeteilt. Diese fungieren als Schiedsrichter. Sie messen die Marker ein und beobachten, ob während der Fahrt alles gemäß den Regeln abgelaufen ist.
1979 gelang zwei thüringischen Familien mit einem selbst gebauten Heißluftballon die „Ballonflucht“ aus der DDR in die Bundesrepublik.

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. It is part of a class of aircraft known as balloon aircraft. On November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, the first untethered[1] manned flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d’Arlandes in a hot air balloon created on December 14, 1782 by the Montgolfier brothers.[2] Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than just being pushed along by the wind are known as airships or, more specifically, thermal airships.

A hot air balloon consists of a bag called the envelope that is capable of containing heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket (in some long-distance or high-altitude balloons, a capsule), which carries passengers and (usually) a source of heat, in most cases an open flame. The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the air surrounding. For modern sport balloons the envelope is generally made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon (closest to the burner flame) is made from fire resistant material such as Nomex. Beginning during the mid-1970s, balloon envelopes have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the traditional shape remains popular for most non-commercial, and many commercial, applications.

Early unmanned hot air balloons were used in China. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, during the Three Kingdoms era (220–280 AD) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. These lanterns are known as Kongming lanterns (孔明灯).[3][4][5] There is also some speculation, from a demonstration directed by British modern hot air balloonist Julian Nott during the late 1970s[6] and again in 2003,[7] that hot air balloons could have been used as an aid for designing the famous Nazca ground figures and lines,[6] which were created by the Nazca culture of Peru between 400 and 650 AD.[8] The first documented balloon flight in Europe was demonstrated by Bartolomeu de Gusmão. On August 8, 1709, in Lisbon, he managed to lift a balloon full of hot air about 4.5 meters in front of King John V and the Portuguese court.

The brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier developed a hot air balloon in Annonay, Ardeche, France, and demonstrated it publicly on September 19, 1783 with an unmanned flight lasting 10 minutes. After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first balloon flight with humans aboard—a tethered flight—performed on or around October 15, 1783 by Etienne Montgolfier who made at least one tethered flight from the yard of the Reveillon workshop in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. Later that same day, Pilatre de Rozier became the second human to ascend into the air, to an altitude of 24 m (79 ft) which was the length of the tether.[11] The first free flight with human passengers occurred a few weeks later, on November 21, 1783.[12] King Louis XVI had originally decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with Marquis François d’Arlandes, petitioned successfully for the honor.[13][14][15] The first military use of a hot air balloon happened during the battle of Fleurus in Europe (1794), with the French using the balloon l’Entreprenant as an observation post.
Modern hot air balloons, with an onboard heat source, were developed by Ed Yost, beginning during the 1950s; his work resulted in his first successful flight, on October 22, 1960.[17] The first modern hot air balloon to be made in the United Kingdom (UK) was the Bristol Belle during 1967. Presently, hot air balloons are used primarily for recreation.

Hot air balloons are able to fly to extremely high altitudes. On November 26, 2005, Vijaypat Singhania set the world altitude record for highest hot air balloon flight, reaching 21,027 m (68,986 ft). He took off from downtown Mumbai, India, and landed 240 km (150 mi) south in Panchale.[18] The previous record of 19,811 m (64,997 ft) had been set by Per Lindstrand on June 6, 1988 in Plano, Texas. As with all unpressurized aircraft, oxygen is needed for all aboard any flight that exceeds an altitude of about 4,500 m (14,800 ft).[19]

On January 15, 1991, the ‘Virgin Pacific Flyer’ balloon completed the longest flight in a hot air balloon when Per Lindstrand (born in Sweden, but resident in the UK) and Richard Branson of the UK flew 7,671.91 km (4,767.10 mi) from Japan to Northern Canada. With a volume of 74 thousand cubic meters (2.6 million cubic feet), the balloon envelope was the largest ever built for a hot air craft. Designed to fly in the trans-oceanic jet streams, the Pacific Flyer recorded the fastest ground speed for a manned balloon at 245 mph (394 km/h). The longest duration record was set by Swiss psychiatrist Bertrand Piccard, Auguste Piccard’s grandson, and Briton Brian Jones, flying in the Breitling Orbiter 3. It was the first nonstop trip around the world by balloon. The balloon left Château-d’Oex, Switzerland, on March 1, 1999, and landed at 1:02 a.m. on March 21 in the Egyptian desert 300 miles (480 km) south of Cairo. The two men exceeded distance, endurance, and time records, traveling 19 days, 21 hours, and 55 minutes. Steve Fossett exceeded the record for briefest time traveling around the world on 3 July 2002. The new record is 320 h 33 min.

A hot air balloon for manned flight uses a single-layered, fabric gas bag (lifting "envelope"), with an opening at the bottom called the mouth or throat. Attached to the envelope is a basket, or gondola, for carrying the passengers. Mounted above the basket and centered in the mouth is the "burner", which injects a flame into the envelope, heating the air within. The heater or burner is fueled by propane, a liquefied gas stored in pressure vessels, similar to high pressure forklift cylinders.

Modern hot air balloons are usually made of materials such as ripstop nylon or dacron (a polyester)
During the manufacturing process, the material is cut into panels and sewn together, along with structural load tapes that carry the weight of the gondola or basket. The individual sections, which extend from the throat to the crown (top) of the envelope, are known as gores or gore sections. Envelopes can have as few as 4 gores or as many as 24 or more.

Envelopes often have a crown ring at their very top. This is a hoop of smooth metal, usually aluminium, and approximately 1 ft (0.30 m) in diameter. Vertical load tapes from the envelope are attached to the crown ring.

Seams
The most common technique for sewing panels together is called the French felled, French fell, or double lap seam. The two pieces of fabric are folded over on each other at their common edge, possibly with a load tape as well, and sewn together with two rows of parallel stitching. Other methods include a flat lap seam, in which the two pieces of fabric are held together simply with two rows of parallel stitching, and a zigzag, where parallel zigzag stitching holds a double lap of fabric.

Coatings
The fabric (or at least part of it, the top 1/3 for example) may be coated with a sealer, such as silicone or polyurethane, to make it impermeable to air.[29] It is often the degradation of this coating and the corresponding loss of impermeability that ends the effective life of an envelope, not weakening of the fabric itself. Heat, moisture, and mechanical wear-and-tear during set up and pack up are the primary causes of degradation. Once an envelope becomes too porous to fly, it may be retired and discarded or perhaps used as a ‘rag bag’: cold inflated and opened for children to run through. Products for recoating the fabric are becoming available commercially.[30]

Sizes and capacity
A range of envelope sizes is available. The smallest, one-person, basket-less balloons (called "Hoppers" or "Cloudhoppers") have as little as 600 m3 (21,000 cu ft) of envelope volume;[31] for a perfect sphere the radius would be around 5 m (16 ft). At the other end of the scale, balloons used by commercial sightseeing operations may be able to carry well over two dozen people, with envelope volumes of up to 17,000 m3 (600,000 cu ft).[31] The most-used size is about 2,800 m3 (99,000 cu ft), and can carry 3 to 5 people.

The top of the balloon usually has a vent of some sort. This enables the pilot to release hot air to slow an ascent, start a descent, or increase the rate of descent, usually for landing. Some hot air balloons have turning vents, which are side vents that, when opened, cause the balloon to rotate. Such vents are particularly useful for balloons with rectangular baskets, to facilitate aligning the wider side of the basket for landing.[32]

The most common type of top vent is a disk-shaped flap of fabric called a parachute vent, invented by Tracy Barnes.[33] The fabric is connected around its edge to a set of "vent lines" that converge in the center. (The arrangement of fabric and lines roughly resembles a parachute—thus the name.) These "vent lines" are themselves connected to a control line that runs to the basket. A parachute vent is opened by pulling on the control line. Once the control line is released, the pressure of the remaining hot air pushes the vent fabric back into place. A parachute vent can be opened briefly while in flight to initiate a rapid descent. (Slower descents are initiated by allowing the air in the balloon to cool naturally.) The vent is pulled open completely to collapse the balloon after landing.

An older, and presently less commonly used, style of top vent is called a "Velcro-style" vent. This too is a disk of fabric at the top of the balloon. However, rather than having a set of "vent lines" that can repeatedly open and close the vent, the vent is secured by "hook and loop" fasteners (such as Velcro) and is only opened at the end of the flight. Balloons equipped with a Velcro-style vent typically have a second "maneuvering vent" built into the side (as opposed to the top) of the balloon. Another common type of top design is the "Smart Vent," which, rather than lowering a fabric disc into the envelope as in the "parachute" type, gathers the fabric together in the center of the opening. This system can theoretically be used for in-flight maneuvering, but is more commonly used only as a rapid-deflation device for use after landing, of particular value in high winds. Other designs, such as the "pop top" and "MultiVent" systems, have also attempted to address the need for rapid deflation on landing, but the parachute top remains popular as an all-around maneuvering and deflation system.

Shape
Besides special shapes, possibly for marketing purposes, there are several variations on the traditional "inverted tear drop" shape. The simplest, often used by home builders, is a hemisphere on top of a truncated cone. More-sophisticated designs attempt to minimize the circumferential stress on the fabric, with different degrees of success depending on whether they take fabric weight and varying air density into account. This shape may be referred to as "natural".[34] Finally, some specialized balloons are designed to minimize aerodynamic drag (in the vertical direction) to improve flight performance in competitions.

Baskets are commonly made of woven wicker or rattan. These materials have proven to be sufficiently light, strong, and durable for balloon flight. Such baskets are usually rectangular or triangular in shape. They vary in size from just big enough for two people to large enough to carry thirty.[36] Larger baskets often have internal partitions for structural bracing and to compartmentalize the passengers. Small holes may be woven into the side of the basket to act as foot holds for passengers climbing in or out.[37]

Baskets may also be made of aluminium, especially a collapsible aluminium frame with a fabric skin, to reduce weight or increase portability.[38] These may be used by pilots without a ground crew or who are attempting to set altitude, duration, or distance records. Other specialty baskets include the fully enclosed gondolas used for around-the-world attempts,[39] and baskets that consist of little more than a seat for the pilot and perhaps one passenger.
The burner unit gasifies liquid propane,[40] mixes it with air, ignites the mixture, and directs the flame and exhaust into the mouth of the envelope. Burners vary in power output; each will generally produce 2 to 3 MW of heat (7 to 10 million BTUs per hour), with double, triple, or quadruple burner configurations installed where more power is needed.[41][42] The pilot actuates a burner by opening a propane valve, known as a blast valve. The valve may be spring-loaded so that it closes automatically, or it may stay open until closed by the pilot. The burner has a pilot light to ignite the propane and air mixture. The pilot light may be lit by the pilot with an external device, such as a flint striker or a lighter, or with a built-in piezo electric spark.[43]

Where more than one burner is present, the pilot can use one or more at a time depending on the desired heat output. Each burner is characterized by a metal coil of propane tubing the flame shoots through to preheat the incoming liquid propane. The burner unit may be suspended from the mouth of the envelope, or supported rigidly over the basket. The burner unit may be mounted on a gimbal to enable the pilot to aim the flame and avoid overheating the envelope fabric. A burner may have a secondary propane valve that releases propane more slowly and thereby generates a different sound. This is called a whisper burner and is used for flight over livestock to lessen the chance of spooking them. It also generates a more yellow flame and is used for night glows because it lights up the inside of the envelope better than the primary valve.

Propane fuel tanks are usually cylindrical pressure vessels made from aluminium, stainless steel, or titanium with a valve at one end to feed the burner and to refuel. They may have a fuel gauge and a pressure gauge. Common tank sizes are 10 (38), 15 (57), and 20 (76) US gallons (liters).[29] They may be intended for upright or horizontal use, and may be mounted inside or outside the basket.

The pressure necessary to force the fuel through the line to the burner may be supplied by the vapor pressure of the propane itself, if warm enough, or by the introduction of an inert gas such as nitrogen.[43] Tanks may be preheated with electrical heat tapes to produce sufficient vapor pressure for cold weather flying.[44] Warmed tanks will usually also be wrapped in an insulating blanket to preserve heat during the setup and flight.

Instrumentation
A balloon may be outfitted with a variety of instruments to aid the pilot. These commonly include an altimeter, a rate of climb (vertical speed) indicator known as a variometer, envelope (air) temperature, and ambient (air) temperature.[45] A GPS receiver can be useful to indicate ground speed (traditional aircraft air speed indicators would be useless) and direction.

Increasing the air temperature inside the envelope makes it lighter than the surrounding (ambient) air. The balloon floats because of the buoyant force exerted on it. This force is the same force that acts on objects when they are in water and is described by Archimedes’ principle. The amount of lift (or buoyancy) provided by a hot air balloon depends primarily upon the difference between the temperature of the air inside the envelope and the temperature of the air outside the envelope. For most envelopes made of nylon fabric, the maximum internal temperature is limited to approximately 120 °C (250 °F).[46]

It should be noted that the melting point of nylon is significantly greater than this maximum operating temperature — about 230 °C (450 °F) — but higher temperatures cause the strength of the nylon fabric to degrade more quickly over time. With a maximum operating temperature of 120 °C (250 °F), balloon envelopes can generally be flown for between 400 and 500 hours before the fabric needs to be replaced. Many balloon pilots operate their envelopes at temperatures significantly less than the maximum to extend envelope fabric life.
The density of air at 20 °C, 68 °F is about 1.2 kg/m³. The total lift for a balloon of 100,000 ft³ heated to (99 °C, 210 °F) would be 1595 lb, 723.5 kg. This is just enough to generate neutral buoyancy for the total system mass (not including the heated air trapped in the envelope, of course) stated in the previous section. Liftoff would require a slightly greater temperature, depending on the desired rate of climb. In reality, the air contained in the envelope is not all the same temperature, as the accompanying thermal image shows, and so these calculations are based on averages.

For typical atmospheric conditions (20 °C, 68 °F), a hot air balloon heated to (99 °C, 210 °F) requires about 3.91 m³ of envelope volume to lift 1 kilogram (62.5 ft³/lb). The precise amount of lift provided depends not only upon the internal temperature mentioned above, but the external temperature, altitude above sea level, and humidity of the air surrounding. On a warm day, a balloon cannot lift as much as on a cool day, because the temperature required for launch will exceed the maximum sustainable for nylon envelope fabric. Also, in the lower atmosphere, the lift provided by a hot air balloon decreases about 3% for each 1,000 meters (1% per 1,000 ft) of altitude gained.

Standard hot air balloons are known as Montgolfier balloons and rely solely on the buoyancy of hot air provided by the burner and contained by the envelope.[48] This style of balloon was developed by the Montgolfier brothers, and had its first public demonstration on 4 June 1783 with an unmanned flight lasting 10 minutes, followed later that year with manned flights.

The 1785 Rozière balloon, a type of hybrid balloon, named after its creator, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, has a separate cell for a lighter than air gas (typically helium,) as well as a cone below for hot air (as is used in a hot air balloon) to heat the helium at night. Hydrogen gas was used in the very early stages of development but was quickly abandoned due to the obvious danger of introducing an open flame near the gas. All modern Roziere balloons now use helium as a lifting gas.

Solar balloons are hot air balloons that use just solar energy captured by a dark envelope to heat the air inside.

To relight the burner if the pilot light goes out and the optional piezo ignition fails, the pilot should have ready access to a means of backup ignition such as a flint spark lighter. Many systems, especially those that carry passengers, have completely redundant fuel and burner systems: two fuel tanks, connected to two separate hoses, which feed two distinct burners. This enables a safe landing in the case of a clog somewhere in one system or if a system must be disabled because of a fuel leak.

A fire extinguisher suitable for extinguishing propane fires is a useful piece of safety equipment in a balloon. Most balloons carry a 1 or 2 kg AB:E type fire extinguisher.

A handling or drop line is mandatory safety equipment in many countries. It is a rope or webbing of 20–30 meters in length attached to the balloon basket with a quick release connection at one end. In very calm wind conditions the balloon pilot can throw the handling line from the balloon so that the ground crew can guide the balloon safely away from obstructions on the ground.

For commercial passenger balloons, a pilot restraint harness is mandatory in some countries. This consists of a hip belt and a webbing line that together allow for some movement while preventing the pilot from being ejected from the basket during a hard landing.

Further safety equipment may include a first-aid kit, a fire blanket and a strong rescue knife.

On the occupants
At a minimum the pilot should wear flame resistant gloves. These can be made of leather or some more sophisticated material, such as nomex. These will enable the pilot to shut off a gas valve in the case of a leak even if there is a flame present. Quick action on the pilot’s part to stop the flow of gas can turn a potential disaster into an inconvenience. In addition, the pilot should wear clothing covering his/her arms and legs and which is made of natural fibers such as cotton or wool. These will singe and not burn readily if brought into contact with an open flame. Many synthetic fibers, unless especially formulated for use near flame or high temperatures like nomex, will melt onto the wearer and can cause severe burning. Many pilots also advise their passengers to wear similar protective clothing that covers their arms and legs, as well as strong shoes or boots that offer good ankle support. Finally, some balloon systems, especially those that hang the burner from the envelope instead of supporting it rigidly from the basket, require the use of helmets by the pilot and passengers.

On the ground crew
The ground crew should wear gloves on their hands whenever the possibility of handling ropes or lines exists. The mass and exposed surface to air movement of a medium sized balloon is sufficient to cause rope friction burns to the hands of anyone trying to stop or prevent movement. The ground crew should also wear sturdy shoes and at least long pants in case of the need to access a landing or landed balloon in rough or overgrown terrain.
As with aircraft, hot air balloons require regular maintenance to remain airworthy. As aircraft made of fabric and that lack direct horizontal control, hot air balloons may occasionally require repairs to rips or snags. While some operations, such as cleaning and drying, may be performed by the owner or pilot, other operations, such as sewing, must be performed by a qualified repair technician and recorded in the balloon’s maintenance log book.

Maintenance
To ensure long life and safe operation, the envelope should be kept clean and dry. This prevents mold and mildew from forming on the fabric and abrasion from occurring during packing, transport, and unpacking due to contact with foreign particles. In the event of a landing in a wet (because of precipitation or early morning or late evening dew) or muddy location (farmer’s field), the envelope should be cleaned and laid out or hung to dry.

The burner and fuel system must also be kept clean to ensure safe operation on demand. Damaged fuel hoses need to be replaced. Stuck or leaky valves must be repaired or replaced. The wicker basket may require occasional refinishing or repair. The skids on its bottom may require occasional replacement.

Balloons in most parts of the world are maintained in accordance with a fixed manufacturer’s maintenance schedule that includes regular (100 flight hours or 12 month) inspections, in addition to maintenance work to correct any damage. In Australia, balloons used for carrying commercial passengers must be inspected and maintained by approved workshops.[52]

Repair
In the case of a snag, burn, or rip in the envelope fabric, a patch may be applied or the affected panel completely replaced. Patches may be held in place with glue, tape, stitching, or a combination of these techniques. Replacing an entire panel requires the stitching around the old panel to be removed, and a new panel to be sewn in with the appropriate technique, thread, and stitch pattern.

Depending on the size of the balloon, location, and intended use, hot air balloons and their pilots need to comply with a variety of regulations.

As with other aircraft in the USA, balloons must be registered (have an N-number), have an airworthiness certificate, and pass annual inspections. Balloons below a certain size (empty weight of less than 155 pounds or 70 kg including envelope, basket, burners and empty fuel tanks) can be used as an ultralight aircraft.

In Australia, a commercial operation must operate with a nominated Chief Pilot and under an Air Operators Certificate from the Australian Civil Aviation and Safety Authority (CASA). Pilots must have different degrees of experience before they are allowed to progress to larger balloons. Hot air balloons must be registered aircraft with the CASA and are subject to regular airworthiness checks by authorised personnel.[53]

In the UK
In the UK, the person in command must hold a valid Private Pilot’s Licence issued by the Civil Aviation Authority specifically for ballooning; this is known as the PPL(B). There are two types of commercial balloon licences: CPL(B) Restricted and CPL(B) (Full). The CPL(B) Restricted is required if the pilot is undertaking work for a sponsor or being paid by an external agent to operate a balloon. The pilot can fly a sponsored balloon with everything paid for with a PPL unless asked to attend any event. Then a CPL(B) Restricted is required. The CPL(B) is required if the pilot is flying passengers for money. The balloon then needs a transport category C of A (certificate of air worthiness). If the pilot is only flying sponsor’s guests, and not charging money for flying other passengers, then the pilot is exempted from holding an AOC (air operator’s certificate) though a copy of it is required[clarification needed]. For passenger flying the balloon also requires a maintenance log.

In the United States of America
In the United States, a pilot of a hot air balloon must have a pilot certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and it must carry the rating of "Lighter-than-air free balloon", and unless the pilot is also qualified to fly gas balloons, will also carry this limitation: "Limited to hot air balloons with airborne heater". A pilot does not need a license to fly an ultralight aircraft, but training is highly advised, and some hot air balloons meet the criteria.

To carry paying passengers for hire (and attend some balloon festivals), a pilot must have a commercial pilot certificate. Commercial hot air balloon pilots may also act as hot air balloon flight instructors. While most balloon pilots fly for the pure joy of floating through the air, many are able to make a living as a professional balloon pilot. Some professional pilots fly commercial passenger sightseeing flights, while others fly corporate advertising balloons.
1989 Alice Springs hot air balloon crash: On 13 August 1989, two hot air balloons collided at Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia, causing one to fall, killing all 13 people on board.
2011 Somerset hot air balloon crash: On 1 January 2011, a hot air balloon attempting a high altitude flight crashed at Pratten’s Bowls Club in Westfield, Somerset, near Bath, England, killing both people on board.
2012 Carterton hot air balloon crash: On 7 January 2012, a hot air balloon collided with a power line, caught fire and crashed at Carterton, North Island, New Zealand, killing all 11 people on board.
2012 Ljubljana Marshes hot air balloon crash: On 23 August 2012, a storm blew a hot air balloon to the ground, causing it to catch fire on impact near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The crash killed 6 of the 32 people on board, and injured the other 26.
2013 Luxor hot air balloon crash: On 26 February 2013, a hot air balloon carrying foreign tourists ignited and crashed near the ancient city of Luxor, Egypt, killing 19 of the 21 people on board, making it the deadliest balloon accident in history.

The largest manufacturer of hot air balloons in the world is Cameron Balloons company of Bristol, England, which also owns Lindstrand Balloons of Oswestry, England. Cameron Balloons, Lindstrand Balloons and another English balloon manufacturing company, Thunder and Colt (since acquired by Cameron), have been innovators and developers of special shaped balloons. These hot air balloons use the same principle of lift as conventional inverted teardrop shaped balloons but often sections of the special balloon envelope shape do not contribute to the balloon’s ability to stay aloft.

The second largest manufacturer of hot air balloons in the world is Ultramagic company, based in Spain, which produces from 80 to 120 balloons per year. Ultramagic can produce very large balloons, such as the N-500 that accommodates as many as 27 persons in the basket, and has also produced many balloons with special shapes, as well as cold-air inflatables.

One of the last Aerostar International, Inc. RX8 balloons.
In the USA Aerostar International, Inc. of Sioux Falls, South Dakota was North America’s largest balloon manufacturer and a close second in world manufacturing before ceasing to build balloons in January 2007. Firefly Balloons, formerly The Balloon Works, is a manufacturer of hot-air balloons in Statesville, North Carolina. Another manufacturer is Head Balloons, Inc. of Helen, Georgia.

The major manufacturers in Canada are Sundance Balloons and Fantasy Sky Promotions. Other manufacturers include Kavanagh Balloons of Australia, Schroeder Fire Balloons of Germany, and Kubicek Balloons of the Czech Republic.
Aviation
Balloon satellite
Barrage balloon
Cinebulle
Cluster ballooning
Espionage balloon
Early flying machines
High-altitude balloon
History of military ballooning
Hot air balloon festival
Hot air ballooning
Lighter than air
List of balloon uses
Blimp
Observation balloon
Research balloon
Sky lantern
Skyhook balloon
Zeppelin

Quelle:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_air_balloon

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hei%C3%9Fluftballon

Posted by !!! Painting with Light !!! #schauer on 2014-08-08 18:57:11

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